Monistery

Holy Isle

Firth of Clyde

The Holy Isle, Firth of Clyde (Scottish Gaelic: Eilean MoLaise) is one of a number of islands in the United Kingdom which go under the name “Holy Island”.

Arran

Firth of Clyde

Arran or the Isle of Arran (Scots Gaelic: Eilean Arainn) is the largest island in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland.

Looe Island

Cornwall

Looe Island is a small island a mile from the mainland town of Looe in Cornwall, United Kingdom.

Eigg

Inner Hebrides

Eigg(Scottish Gaelic: Eige) is one of the Small Isles, in the Scottish Inner Hebrides. It lies to the south of the Skye and to the north of the Ardnamurchan peninsula.

Eigg is dominated by “an Sgurr”, a dramatic pitchstone ridge, the largest of its kind in Europe. Laig bay, a large white Atlantic beach, faces the Cuillins of Rum, one of the most memorable views on the west coast of Scotland. Further North is the Singing Sands, a stunning musical quartz beach surrounded by outstanding geological formations.

As well as being known as the jewel in the Hebridean crown for its outstanding beauty, Eigg has many other cultural and historical attractions: Picts and Vikings have left their marks, and its rich history is steeped in clan warfare and the crofting way of life. Eigg’s pioneering community buy-out ushered in land reform in Scotland, giving islanders control of their future for the first time. Among other achievements, Eigg has the first completely wind, water and sun-powered electricity grid in the world. Whether you come for the community or the scenery, to visit Eigg is to begin a life long love affair with our island.

Eigg is 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) long from north to south, and 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) east to west. With an area of 12 square miles (31 km2), it is the second largest of the Small Isles after Rùm.

[tabgroup][tab title=”Visiting”]

By Car

The mainland ferry terminals of Mallaig (Caledonian MacBrayne) and Arisaig (Arisaig Marine) are about an hour from Fort William on the A 830, the famous ‘Road to the Isles’.

The total journey time from Glasgow is about 3 to 3 1/2 hours, and from Edinburgh about 4 to 4 1/2.

There are only a very few miles of road on Eigg and the Highland Council have decided that the only vehicles allowed will be those of islanders (with permits) and service vehicles. Exception will be made for vehicles with registered disabled passengers. There is ample parking in both villages mentioned above, and when you reach Eigg you will appreciate it much more without your car!

Ferries

You can catch a ferry to Eigg from Mallaig on the Caledonian MacBrayne boat, the Loch Nevis, or from Arisaig on the Sheerwater.  The Loch Nevis operates all year round while the Sheerwater sails only in the summer months. Eigg Boat trips are also available.

[/tab][tab title=”Geography”]

The main settlement on Eigg is Cleadale, a fertile coastal plain in the north west. It is known for its quartz beach, called the “singing sands” (Tràigh a’ Bhìgeil) on account of the squeaking noise it makes if walked on when dry.

The centre of the island is a moorland plateau, rising to 1,289 feet (393 metres) at An Sgurr, a dramatic stump of pitchstone, sheer on three sides. Walkers who complete the easy scramble to the top in good weather are rewarded with spectacular views all round, of Mull, Coll, Muck, the Outer Hebrides, Rùm, Skye, and the mountains of Lochaber on the mainland.

[/tab][tab title=”Nature”]At approximately 8km long and 5km wide(5 by 3 miles), Eigg has an astonishing variety of habitats for its size.

These support an abundance of wildlife. The otter hunts and plays around the sandy bays. Orchid-rich grasslands and rich meadows shelter the elusive corncrake. Squelching loch-studded moors alternate with volcanic crags where eagles and ravens ride the up-draught and cliffs where the Manx Shearwater comes to nest each year. Mature woodlands echo with the sound of songbirds.

Grey and Common seal colonies also inhabit the island’s coastal waters whilst dolphins and Minke whales are frequent visitors.[/tab][/tabgroup]


History

Bronze Age and Iron Age inhabitants have left their mark on Eigg. The monastery at Kildonan was founded by a missionary possibly from either Dal Riata or an Irish Kingdom, St. Donnan. He and his monks were massacred in 617 by the local Pictish queen. In medieval times the island was held by Clan Donald.

Writing in 1549, Donald Munro, High Dean of the Isles wrote of “Egge” that it was: “gude mayne land with ane paroch kirk in it, with mony solenne geis; very gude for store, namelie for scheip, with ane heavin for heiland Galayis”.

Massacre Cave

[one_half]

During the sixteenth century there was a lengthy feud between the MacLeod and MacDonald clans, which may have led to the massacre of the island’s entire population in the late 16th century. According to Clanranald tradition, in 1577 a party of MacLeods staying on the island became too amorous and caused trouble with the local girls. They were subsequently rounded up, bound and cast adrift in The Minch but were rescued by some clansmen.

A party of MacLeods subsequently landed on Eigg with revenge in mind. Their approach had been spotted by the islanders who had hidden in a secret cave called the Cave of Frances (Scottish Gaelic: Uamh Fhraing) located on the south coast.

The entrance to this cave was tiny and covered by moss, undergrowth and a small waterfall. After a thorough but fruitless search lasting for three to five days, the MacLeods set sail again but a MacDonald carelessly climbed onto a promontory to watch their departure and was spotted.
The MacLeods returned and were able to follow his footprints back to the cave.

[/one_half]

[one_half_last]
They then rerouted the source of the water, piled thatch and roof timbers at the cave entrance and set fire to it at the same time damping the flames so that the cave was filled with smoke thereby asphyxiating everyone inside either by smoke inhalation or heat and oxygen deprivation.

Three hundred and ninety five people died in the cave, the whole population of the island bar one old lady who had not sought refuge there. There are however some difficulties with this tale and in later times a minister of Eigg stated that “the less I enquired into its history… the more I was likely to feel I knew something about it”.Nonetheless, human remains in the cave were reported by Boswell in 1773, by Sir Walter Scott in 1814 and Hugh Miller in 1845. By 1854 they had been removed and buried elsewhere.

Massacre Cave (grid reference NM434874) sits in the back of a fault-like crevice under a steep rock face. It is no more than 0.65 metres (2.1 ft) height and one needs to crawl to gain access and then keep crawling for a further 7 metres (23 ft) before it opens out. The length is approximately 79 metres (259 ft), the width 8 metres (26 ft) and height 6 metres (20 ft).[/one_half_last]

18th and 19th centuries

Near to Massacre Cave there is another tidal cave with a large and visible entrance; it is high-roofed and is said to have been used for Roman Catholic services after the 1745 rebellion.

The Cruise of the Betsey (1858)

The Scottish geologist and writer Hugh Miller visited the island in the 1840s and wrote a long and detailed account of his explorations in his book The Cruise of the Betsey published in 1858. Miller was a self-taught geologist; so the book contains detailed observations of the geology of the island, including the Scuir and the singing sands. He describes the islanders of Eigg as “an active, middle-sized race, with well-developed heads, acute intellects, and singularly warm feelings”. He describes seeing the bones of adults and children in family groups with the charred remains of their straw mattresses and small household objects still in Massacre Cave. Walter Scott was so appalled and moved on hearing that the skulls and bones of the dead were still stacked there, that he started a fund for a Christian burial which resulted in their removal.

By the 19th century, the island had a population of 500, producing potatoes, oats, cattle and kelp. When sheep farming became more profitable than any alternative, land was cleared by compulsory emigration – in 1853 the whole of the village of Gruilin, fourteen families, was forced to leave.


Gateholm

Pembrokeshire

Gateholm is a small tidal island off the south west coast of Pembrokeshire in the south west side of Wales, in the west of the UK, and about 13km west of the port of Milford Haven. It is known for its Romano-British remains.

Name

The name, recorded as Goteholme in 1480, derives from Old Norse for “goat island”
Geography

Gateholm is at the western end of Marloes Sands, and is accessible only at low tide. Gateholm rises to a small plateau about 30 metres (100 ft) high, and with an area of about 4 hectares (10 acres).The island consists of steeply-dipping Old Red Sandstone.[5] The rock strata date from the Prídolí Epoch of the Silurian; the exceptional exposure here and on the adjoining Albion Sands have resulted in the location’s inclusion in the Geological Conservation Review as a candidate for protection as a geological site of special scientific interest (SSSI).

Archaeology

The island contained around 130 round houses as well as huts of a rectangular shape. The rectangular houses were mostly arranged in rows end-on and surrounded by small courtyards.Excavations of some of these hut sites conducted in 1910 and 1930 found evidence for occupation in the Roman period, with finds including pottery, coins, and a small bronze stag.Of particular interest was the discovery of a bronze pin of Irish origin and dating from the 6th century.[4] One of the houses had a stone phallus buried upright in one of the main post holes. The houses were built of turf with stone facings, the roof being carried on a ridge-pole between the posts.The site has been interpreted variously as a native Romano-British settlement with later occupation, and as an early monastic complex.

Filming

Gateholm was the subject of an episode of the British archaeology television series, Time Team (Series 19, episode 01). It also featured prominently in the 2011 filming of the Snow White and the Huntsman film where a computer-generated castle was superimposed on the island in post-production.